Wednesday, November 5, 2008

{{Infobox Military Structure|name= Area 58 (Aerospace Data Facility East)[[Image:US-NationalReconnaissanceOffice-Seal.svg| 140px]][[Image:US-NationalGeospatialIntelligenceAgency-2008Seal.svg|140px]]|partof=[[National Reconnaissance Office]] [[Department of Defense]]|location= Located near [[Fort Belvoir]], [[Virginia]], [[United States]]|coordinates=|image= [[Image:Adfe dceeta sign.jpg|right|thumb|250px|]]|caption= |type= Satellite Ground Station|code=|built=1977|builder=|materials=|height=|used= 1977-Present|demolished=|condition=|ownership= United States Army|controlledby= National Reconnaissance Office|garrison= |commanders= |occupants=|battles=|events= [[Y2K]]}}'''Defence Communications Electronic Evaluation Testing Activity''' (also known as Area 58, Aerospace Data Facility East, Defense CEETA, and The Mission Ground Site){{cite book|last=Richelson|first=Jeffrey|title=The U.S. Intelligence Community: Fourth Edition|year=1999|month= |publisher=[[Westview Press]]|location=[[Boulder, Colorado]]|isbn=0813368936|pages=171|chapter=7|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=BaeJNdRySPoC&pg=PA171&dq=Defense+Communications+Electronics+Evaluation+and+Testing+Activity&as_brr=3&sig=ACfU3U38z1hzpxXozn4RXTrNWTLSgKOYvQ#PPA171,M1}} is a [[Military of the United States|U.S Military]] installation located in the in the Northeast of [[Fort Belvoir]], [[Virginia]]. Located in a large, two-story, concrete building behind a sign labeled ''Aerospace Data Facility East'', intense secrecy protects most of the installation operations. It's at Area 58 where [[National Reconnaissance Office|NRO]] and its sister organization, [[National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency|NGA]], manage the daily operations of the imagery network. == Location =="The first [[Satellite Data System|SDS]] satellites were placed into highly elliptical [[Molniya orbit|"Molniya" orbits]] to send images from [[KH-11]] electro-optical reconnaissance satellites back to the DCEETA/Area 58 ground station at Ft. Belvoir, Virginia ({{coord|38|44|10|N|-77|9|30|E|display=inline,title}}). It is possible that some later SDS satellites were placed in geosynchronous orbits and may serve as relays for other [[National Reconnaissance Office|NRO]] satellites, such as [[Lacrosse (satellite)|Lacrosse]]." {{cite web|title=Encyclopedia > [[Quasar (satellite)]]|accessdate=2008-10-07|year=2005|work=[[NationMaster]]|url=http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Quasar-(satellite)}}
== Geography ==[[Image:Area 58 AFDE DCEETA entrance2.jpg|800px|center|Area 58|center|Panoramic view of Aerospace Data Facility East]]Area 58 has a separate entrance from the main base, accessable from [[Virginia_State_Route_241|Telegraph Road]] near its intersection with [[Route_613_(Fairfax_County,_Virginia)|Beulah Road]]. The site is wooded, and screened on three sides by hills.{{cite web|title=8201 Beulah Road, Alexandria, VA|accessdate=2008-10-07|year=2008|work=[[Google Maps]]|url=http://maps.google.com/maps?q=8201+Beulah+Road+Alexandria,+22060&ie=UTF8&ll=38.744681,-77.166166&spn=0.015934,0.027466&t=p&z=15&output=embed&s=AARTsJoiXeyq-jg_FYPHVftwa_Hm1ge2gA}} A satellite view is available showing the large building near two large [[radomes]] oriented on a north south axis.{{cite web|title=8201 Beulah Road, Alexandria, VA|accessdate=2008-10-07|year=2008|work=[[Google Maps]]|url=http://maps.google.com/maps?oi=map&q=8201+Beulah+Road+Alexandria,+22060}}
== Operations ==[[Image:Dceeta building.jpg |right|thumb|250px|]]DCEETA is the primary downlink for satellite intellegence.

For the [[KH-11]] and [[KH-12|advanced KH-11]] the primary ground station is the Mission Ground Site at Fort Belvoir, Virginia, about 20 miles south of Washington. It is a large, windowless, 2 story concrete building officially know as the Defense Communications Electronics Evaluation and Testing Activity (DCEETA), and also known as Area 58. While the Fort Belvoir was the only downlink for the KH-11 additional sites were added - apparantly in Hawaii and Europe."{{cite book|last=Richelson|first=Jeffrey|title=The U.S. Intelligence Community: Fourth Edition|year=1999|publisher=[[Westview Press]]|pages=170-171|location=[[Boulder, Colorado]]|isbn=0813368936|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=BaeJNdRySPoC&pg=PA171&dq=Defense+Communications+Electronics+Evaluation+and+Testing+Activity&as_brr=3&sig=ACfU3U38z1hzpxXozn4RXTrNWTLSgKOYvQ#PPA171,M1}}


Orbiting the earth every 92 minutes at an altitude of between 170 and 320 miles, the satellite's signals are first transmitted to another satellite. The pictures are then retransmitted down to analysts at the Mission Ground Site, a large, windowless, two- story concrete building at Fort Belvoir, near Washington, with the cover name of Defense Communications Electronics Evaluation and Testing Activity. For the first time, analysts can order up detailed views of target areas virtually instantly. "You can call up the KH-11," says one person familiar with the system, "and when it comes up on its geometry to the target area, you can get a photo and have it back down here, printed out, in an hour, and have it over to the White House." "{{Cite journal|last=Bamford|first=James|author-link=James Bamford|publication-date=January 13, 1985|date=January 13, 1985|year=1985|title=America's Supersecret Eyes In Space|periodical=The New York Times|publication-place=New York|publisher=The New York Times|url=http://select.nytimes.com/search/restricted/article?res=F30D10F73D5F0C708DDDA80894DD484D81|accessdate =}}


The installation also receives and analyzes [[classified]] satellites' signals to support the [[Military Intelligence Corps (United States Army)|Military Intelligence Corps]].Apparantly, operations run [[24/7/365]], with automated vehicle [[access control]]. The guard shack is manned weekdays.
== First White House Use ==The first documented use of material downloaded at DCEETA was in 1977.
On January 21, 1977, Acting Director of the CIA, Mr. E. Henry Knoche met with and delivered reconnaissance satellite photographs to President Carter, that had been downloaded at DCEETA. It was the beginning of real-time imaging.{{cite book|last=Burrows|first=William|author-link William E. Burrows|title=Deep Black: Space Espionage and National Security|publisher=[[Random House]]|location=[[New York, New York]]|year=1986|pages=225-227|url=http://www.amazon.com/Deep-Black-Espionage-National-Security/dp/0394541243|isbn=0394541243}}
' "Of course," [[Jimmy Carter]] said as he turned to [[Zbigniew Brzezinski|Brzezinski]], "this will also be of value in our arms control work." The KH-11 had made its White House debut, and on that hopeful note the meeting in the [[Map Room (White House)|Map Room]] came to an end.'{{cite book|last=Burrows|first=William|author-link William E. Burrows|title=Deep Black: Space Espionage and National Security|publisher=[[Random House]]|location=[[New York, New York]]|year=1986|pages=229|url=http://www.amazon.com/Deep-Black-Espionage-National-Security/dp/0394541243|isbn=0394541243}}
== [[Y2K]] ==During Y2K, there were some problems downloading there:
Early on Jan. 1, NRO's Defense Communications Electronics Evaluation Testing Activity (DCEETA) at Ft. Belvoir was capable of capturing, on average, no more than 70 percent of the planned coverage by the imagery satellites. DCEETA, known within intelligence circles as Area 58, is a highly secure facility, and defense officials do not discuss operations at the complex. According to the Washington, DC-based [[Federation of American Scientists]], however, Area 58 is responsible for the tasking and primary processing of national imagery acquired through overhead systems, like the [[Keyhole]] and [[Lacrosse]] satellites. It's at Area 58 where [[National Reconnaissance Office|NRO]] and its sister organization, [[National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency|NIMA]], manage the daily operations of the imagery network.{{Cite journal|last=Lardner|first=Richard|publication-date=January 13, 2000|title=Technical woes were not disclosed by DOD. Pre-Y2K problems undercut operations of U.S. satellite imagery network|periodical=[[Inside Washington Publishers]]|series=|volume=16|issue=2|pages=|url=http://cryptome.org/sat-woes.htm|issn=|accessdate=2008-10-07}}{{Cite journal|last=Lardner|first=Richard|publication-date=January 13, 2000|title=Technical woes were not disclosed by DOD. Pre-Y2K problems undercut operation of U.S. satellite imagery network|periodical=[[Inside Washington Publishers|insidedefense.com]]|series=|volume=|issue=|pages=|url=http://www.insidedefense.com/public/pent01132000.asp|issn=|accessdate=2008-10-07}}
This article elaborated on the press conference of [[United_States_Deputy_Secretary_of_Defense|Deputy Sec Def]] [[John Hamre]];{{cite web|title=DoD News Briefing|accessdate=2008-10-07|author=[[John Hamre]]|date=January 4, 2000|work=[[Federation of American Scientists]]|pages=|url=http://www.fas.org/sgp/news/2000/01/dody2k2.html}}. The Federation of American Scientists reference is to a deleted essay about DCEETA by Mr [[John E. Pike]]{{cite web|title=Area 58|accessdate=2003-09-11|author=John E. Pike|date=|work=[[Federation of American Scientists]]|pages=|url=http://www.fas.org/irp/Area_58.htm}}.
The problem wasn't with the satellite system - they were under positive control at all times," Hamre said. "The problem was on the ground in the processing station."{{cite news |first= Jim |last= Garamone|coauthors= |title=Y2K has little effect on military operations |work= [[American Forces Press Service]]|page= |date=January 3, 2000 |accessdate=2008-10-07|quote= |url=http://www.governmentexecutive.com/dailyfed/0100/010300t1.htm}}

Aside from the operational issues, the year-end complications with the imagery network generated a good deal of finger pointing. Lt. Gen. James King, the director of [[National Imagery and Mapping Agency]], was reportedly furious over the imagery dissemination problems, which sources say stemmed from an unstable [[asynchronous transfer mode]] (ATM) switch at Ft. Belvoir, VA. The switch is operated by the [[Defense_Information_Systems_Agency|Defense Information Systems Agency]] and has created problems in the past. King is demanding that DISA's leadership explain why the switch has not been repaired properly, these sources say."{{Cite journal|last=Lardner|first=Richard|publication-date=January 13, 2000|title=Technical woes were not disclosed by DOD. Pre-Y2K problems undercut operation of U.S. satellite imagery network|periodical=[[Inside Washington Publishers|insidedefense.com]]|series=|volume=|issue=|pages=|url=http://www.insidedefense.com/public/pent01132000.asp|issn=|accessdate=2008-10-07}}


According to sources, DDS [NIMA's Defense Dissemination System] routes imagery through DISA's ATM switch at Ft. Belvoir. From the ATM switch, the intelligence products are loaded into a "pipe," like the Defense Satellite Communication System," through which they are delivered to the various warfighting commands. However, the ATM switch has a record of poor performance, and the Dec. 27 problems produced outages of 12 hours or more for Pacific Command and Central Command, according to an internal Pentagon e-mail message."{{Cite journal|last=Lardner|first=Richard|publication-date=January 13, 2000|title=Technical woes were not disclosed by DOD. Pre-Y2K problems undercut operation of U.S. satellite imagery network|periodical=[[Inside Washington Publishers|insidedefense.com]]|series=|volume=|issue=|pages=|url=http://www.insidedefense.com/public/pent01132000.asp|issn=|accessdate=2008-10-07}}


== Construction ==In 1999, Beulah was realligned at the cost of $8 million dollars. A sign entitled ''Defense DCEETA'' was erected at the new entrance, (the old Beulah Road). In 2004, a fuel farm was built there.{{cite web|title=DCEETA Fort Belvoir Fueling Facility|accessdate=2008-10-07|author=|last=|first=|coauthors=|date=|year=2004|month=|work=Shirley Contracting Co. |website=|pages=|url=http://www.shirleycontracting.com/p-dceeta1.htm}} In 2004, a 1.5 million gallon water tank was built there.{{cite web|title=DCEETA Fort Belvoir Water Tank|accessdate=2008-10-10|author=|last=|first=|coauthors=|date=|year=2004|month=|work=Shirley Contracting Co. |website=|pages=|url=http://www.shirleycontracting.com/p-dceeta2.htm}} Currently, a Remote Delivery Facility budgeted for $17 million dollars is under construction.www.deq.state.va.us/export/sites/default/permitap/documents/VWPGP-Sep2008.xls . A parking garage is planned: "The project would increase the parking at DCEETA from 200 to 500 vehicles."{{cite web|title=National Capital Planning Commission Actions|accessdate=2008-10-10|author=|last=|first=|coauthors=|date=|year=2007|month=10|work= |website=|pages=|url=http://www.ncpc.gov/UserFiles/File/NCPC%20Commission%20Actions%20and%20EDRs/2007%20NCPC%20Commission%20Actions%20and%20EDRs/October%202007/10.07/10.4.07%20-%206770%20EDR%20(consent)%20Fort%20Belvoir%20West%20Parking%20Garage_.pdf}} Maintenance Manuals have been posted online, addressed to: Facility Engineer, DCEETA, Attn: Greg Hopfer.{{cite web|title= TM 5-692-2|accessdate= 2008-10-07|author= Headquarters, Department of the Army|last=|first=|coauthors=|date=15 April 2001|month=|work=|website=|pages=|url= www.wbdg.org/ccb/ARMYCOE/COETM/tm_5_692_2.pdf }}DCEETA has registered as a company on the Cotera website, using the address 8201 Beulah St.Fort Belvoir, VA 22060. {{cite web|title=DCEETA Fort Belvoir Fueling Facility|accessdate=2008-10-09|author=|last=|first=|coauthors=|date=|year=2004|month=|work= website|pages=|url=http://start.cortera.com/company/research/k2l0lro2q/dceetadefense-ceeta/}}In 2008, the ''Defense CEETA'' sign was replaced by a ''Aerospace Data Facility East'' sign.
== Software Legal Case ==In 1998, in a rare appearance in open court, DCEETA was found to have broken the procurement laws, but without prejudice barring relief, in the matter of Candle Corporation, versusthe United States, and Boole & Babbage, Inc:
The procurement at issue involves MQSeries system management software. [[MQSeries]] is messaging software developed by IBM which allows business applications to integrate and communicate across desktop and mainframe systems, overcoming inconsistencies with different network protocols and all major commercial platforms. "{{cite web |url=http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=fedclaim&vol=1998/97851c |title=No. 97-851C |accessdate=2008-10-10 |work= |publisher=Find Law |date= April 3, 1998}}

== Anthrax Detection ==An apparant false alarm of anthrax was sent by the DCEETA mail facility.
At 1:50 p.m. Tuesday, [date unknown], the Fort Belvoir Provost Marshal Office received notification from the Defense Communications-Electronics Evaluation and Testing Activity here of an apparent positive anthrax detection in a temporary mail handling facility within the agency’s compound." {{cite web |url=http://www.belvoir.army.mil/news.asp?id=mailroom |title= 2 Belvoir mailrooms closed for testing|author= Wayne V. Hall|accessdate=2006-06-04 |work= Fort Belvoir News|publisher= |date= }}

== U.S. Government Position on Area 58 ==The NRO has reaffirmed the classification of Area 58:
1.3.3.e. (U)[Unclassified] The term "Area 58" or "A-58" [may be released] when limited to the context of a very general association with the NRO, intelligence activities, imagery intelligence, or satellite reconnaissance but not revealing any geographic location information."{{cite journal|title= National Reconnaissance Office Review and Redaction Guide|vol= Version 1.0 |year= 2006|page= 31|url= {{cite%20web|title=%20Security%20News|work=%20FAS%20Project%20on%20Government%20Secrecy|date=%20June%207,%202007|accessdate=2008-10-07|year=%202006|url=%20>
The irony is that the Soviet security and intelligence organization K.G.B. probably knows more about America's spy-satellite operations than all but the few most highly cleared people in the United States. The reason for this is an abominable track record in security on the part of the C.I.A. and the satellite intelligence community as a whole."{{Cite journal|last=Bamford|first=James|author-link=James Bamford|publication-date=January 13, 1985|date=January 13, 1985|year=1985|title=America's Supersecret Eyes In Space|periodical=The New York Times|publication-place=New York|publisher=The New York Times|url=http://select.nytimes.com/search/restricted/article?res=F30D10F73D5F0C708DDDA80894DD484D81|accessdate =}}

For example, refer to the Russian language journal ''News of Cosmonautics'', that discusses the satellite intelligence capability:
In May, June, and December 2000, at the request from the USA, Great Britain, and Australia in accordance with resolution 58 (WRC-2000) of the [[ITU]], entered the demands for the coordination of frequency ranges for the ground receiving stations, of the fixed communication service, provided by satellites on [[Geostationary orbit|GSO]]. As for the ground stations proposed to register that are already known to the reader, [[Menwith Hill]], [[Buckley AFB|Buckley]] (both under their own designations), and [[Pine Gap]] (under the conditional designation JDFPG, that obviously indicates Joint Defense Facility Pine Gap), and also a certain station under the conditional designation DCEETA in the territory of the USA. It is possible that by the name DCEETA is hidden the secret base NRO (Ft. Belvoir), known in reconnaissance circles as Area 58. On this base, according to data of the Federation of American Scientists, is performed processing of the specific reconnaissance information, obtained from the satellites KH and Lacrosse. The abbreviation DCEETA is deciphered as Defense Communications Electronics Evaluation Testing Activity, and serves as the designation of the subdivision NRO, where is employed the method and information processing from the reconnaissance satellites."{{cite journal |last= Agapov|first= V.|authorlink= V. Agapov|coauthors= |year= 2003|month= September|title= USA-171:new «hearing» in orbit |journal= News of cosmonautics|volume= 17|issue= |pages= 250|id= |url= http://www.novosti-kosmonavtiki.ru/content/numbers/250/17.shtml|accessdate=2008-10-15 |quote= }}

This is confirmed by the ITU spreadsheet showing ground stations of DCEETA and JDFPG.{{cite web|title=Space Services Department Query Result|accessdate=2008-10-10|author=|last=|first=|coauthors=|date=2/9/2008|year=2008|month=|work=ITU website|pages=|url=http://www.itu.int/ITU-R/space/snl/bresult/radvance.asp?sel_satname=&sel_esname=&sel_adm=&sel_org=&sel_ific=2627&sel_year=&sel_date_from=&sel_date_to=&sel_rcpt_from=&sel_rcpt_to=&sel_orbit_from=&sel_orbit_to=&sup=&q_reference=&q_ref_numero=&q_sns_id=&nmod=asc&norder=ssn_no}}
== References =={{reflist}}== External References ==*{{Cite journal|last=Bamford|first=James|author-link=James Bamford|publication-date=January 13, 1985|date=January 13, 1985|year=1985|title=America's Supersecret Eyes In Space|periodical=The New York Times|publication-place=New York|publisher=The New York Times|url=http://select.nytimes.com/search/restricted/article?res=F30D10F73D5F0C708DDDA80894DD484D81|accessdate =}}*{{cite book|last=Richelson|first=Jeffrey|title=The U.S. Intelligence Community: Fourth Edition|year=1999|month= |publisher=[[Westview Press]]|location=[[Boulder, Colorado]]|isbn=0813368936|pages=|chapter=|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=BaeJNdRySPoC&pg=PA171&dq=Defense+Communications+Electronics+Evaluation+and+Testing+Activity&as_brr=3&sig=ACfU3U38z1hzpxXozn4RXTrNWTLSgKOYvQ#PPA171,M1}}*{{cite book|last=Burrows|first=William|author-link William E. Burrows|title=Deep Black: Space Espionage and National Security|publisher=[[Random House]]|location=[[New York, New York]]|year=1986|pages=|url=http://www.amazon.com/Deep-Black-Espionage-National-Security/dp/0394541243|isbn=0394541243}}{{coord|38|44|10|N|-77|9|30|E}}

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